The biodiversity and its crisis
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources Philippines is going to submit a draft of executive orders aimed to achive a fair distribution of profit which domestic plants, animals and its heredity resources make within this year. This draft lists resources which have potential commercial value and includes guidelines on its protection and research as intellectual property and adjustment of control rights.
The Philippines is going to protect the rights of the commercial use of the nation's genetic resources, which include the many indigenous species that developed in the Mangrove forest.
Concerning biodiversity,there is a problem that biological resources, which have particular genes and traditional knowledge, are collected, sneaked out without permission and monopolized. This includes plants, animals and microbes that are used for food, medicine and chemicals.
Practically speaking, many kinds of plants and animals have become extinct because of the people's indiscriminate hunting, illegal dealing, and destruction of their habitat. Nihon ookami, for instance, is an example of such phenomenon. In Asia, there are still many species that are on the brink of extinction.
Even the tiger has been decreasing in number. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the tiger had been a widely spread inhabitant of the Asian continent. However, 90% of them were lost during 100 years. Similarly, the number of Asiatic black bears have also been decreasing because of hunters who seek their fur.
As a step towards solving such problems, countries have signed a treaty to protect biodiversity; ”Convention on Biological Diversity” in 1993. It divided biodiversity into preservation soecies, gene and ecosystem. The treaty has three goals: preserve biodiversity, the sustainable use of their component, and its fair distribution of profit. Additionally, the third goal includes one more protocol: ”Nagoya Protocol.” It was made this year.